Dramatic Elements

These twelve dramatic elements are at the core of all drama. They can be used in isolation or simultaneously and are manipulated by the performer for dramatic effect.

Focus is often used interchangeably with the terms concentration and engagement, assisting the performer in the portrayal of believable characters. This also implies memorisation of text (including word, moves and gestures). Furthermore, focus requires the channelling (focusing) of all the performer’s energies into achieving the given goals or objectives of a character in a scene (otherwise known as ‘wants’).

Tension can sometimes be used as an interchangeable term with conflict. But where it differs, lies in the development of suspense in a performance. As the audience anticipates certain outcomes in the plot, the tension builds. An obvious example of rising tension is in a mystery or whodunit. The development of tension usually parallels the advancement of the plot, leading to a crisis or climax. Tension is closely linked with timing.


Timing in performance refers to dramatic timing of movements and gestures. We often take ourmovements for granted in everyday life, but when performing, the use of our body must be carefully considered. Timing can be manipulated to create contrast in a scene or simply to demonstrate robotic, stylised and non-naturalistic movements. Rhythm and pace are affected by timing.

Rhythm refers to the timing and pace of the drama. It also means the beat or tempo of the performance. As a rule, rhythm should never be the same throughout the drama, regardless of its length. Rhythm can follow the emotional state of one or more characters or the atmosphere of the performance at particular moments.

Without the careful use of contrast a performance is boring and lacks tension. An obvious example of contrast is a sad scene followed by a happy one. But contrast can be created in subtler and sophisticated ways, such as manipulating the drama to create a change in setting, use of space or rhythm. The pace of scenes can also be altered, as can various dramatic elements within one small section of a performance

Mood is the feeling or tone of a performance. It refers to ambience or aura and is often created through a combination of several dramatic and stagecraft elements working in harmony with each other. The mood of a performance is closely linked with everyday feelings such as pity, anger, desire or frustration. Mood in drama can be created via sound, lighting, movement, setting, rhythm, contrast, conflict and more.

This dramatic element refers to the effective use of available space in a performance. Different levels of space are utilised by the performer, such as sitting, bending over, lying down or crawling. Of course, using the space around you can mean downstage and upstage or walking in or on a stage set. In order to use the space effectively, movement becomes an important factor. Use of space also implies clearly communicating to the audience where the action is taking place. This may include any changes in location that may occur in the performance (particularly if little or no sets and/or props are being used and there is a heavy reliance on the audience’s imagination).

The use of language in performance can be verbal, vocal or non-verbal. Language is the spoken text. It is the written script realised in performance. While normally spoken by the actor, language can also be chanted or sung. It can also be deliberately nonsensical (gibberish) for dramatic effect. The choice of language in performance is crucial, as it is forms a major means of communicating the story of the drama to the audience. Exactly how the actor in performance uses language is usually determined by the expressive skill of voice. However, language can also be non-verbal, commonly referred to as body language.


Modern theatrical practice relies on sound to assist in a number of ways. It can be useful in creating atmosphere or mood. Actors and their bodies can construct effective sound in performance. Small props can also create sound effects that can be used live during a show. Other uses of sound involve the implementation of technology, such as instrumental recordings and sound effects on CDs and mp3 players (though this use of sound is technically a stagecraft element in the theatre, not a dramatic element).

The use of symbol in dramatic performance can be one of the simplest and also most complicated of all techniques. Essentially, symbolism implies a greater meaning than the literal suggestion. Props are the easiest to work with because objects in everyday life are symbols in society (for example a rose symbolises love; a cross symbolises Christianity). Symbols can also be found in the use of colour. We often symbolise purple with royalty, red with anger or desire, black with evil and darkness or white with purity and innocence. Colour association can be worthwhile symbols with costumes, sets and props. But the most sophisticated use of symbol occurs with the application of gesture and movement. A particular gesture performed by a character early in a performance can be repeated later under different circumstances (context) and have a very different meaning. Used only once, a gesture can also be a powerful symbol. Of course, all of the above examples can be combined for better effect.

Playwright George Bernard Shaw (who wrote Pygmalion, which was later adapted to become the film My Fair Lady) once said ‘No conflict, no drama’. How right he was! Drama that lacks conflict is normally dull and uninspiring. As a rule, conflict should always be considered an essential ingredient for all dramatic performances. Conflict can be between two or more characters, or simply one (inner conflict). Many Elizabethan soliloquies contain inner conflict (‘To be or not to be…’ is an excellent example). Conflict on stage can be verbal, physical or non-verbal (psychological). Conflict differs from tension in that it is often a fixed part of the structure of a play, with characters destined to clash with one another from the outset.

Most drama will have one or more crises in the development of the plot. A crisis is a key moment of dramatic tension and conflict in the play, usually occurring between two or more characters and having serious implications for the outcome of the plot. The ultimate crisis, or highest peak, is usually called the climax and often (but not always) occurs toward the end of a performance. There can also be more than one climax, although this is uncommon.

102 Responses

  1. Nader says:

    I found it useful. I could learn something new.Thanks.

  2. Asoka Sandra says:

    Hey do you know dramatic elements of festivals. Thanks

  3. skye says:

    this was a great help.
    a i used it for my drama assessment so it was good that i had a source that was quick and easy to understand!

  4. SOUMEN PAL says:


  5. Jono Neep says:

    This helped a lot and I am really grateful for someone doing this. I ended up getting an A and this really helped with that.

  6. Hayden says:

    Thanks a lot , really helped for my research , very helpful ????

  7. Anonymous Kitty says:

    It helps me… but theres one thing that u dont answer the… spectacle…

  8. Akituk sylvia says:

    This is a great resource for teaching /learning of drama.Thanks.

  9. Liam W.M says:

    This is helping me with my exams, thank you!

  10. Naiogeger says:


  11. Camila Pierce says:

    NIfty bro. PRECISELY what i wanted!

  12. Snaua macdoanald says:

    This didn’t help……
    I have some feedback
    list the definitions, terms and more about

  13. Gina says:

    This doesn’t help. Were the technical elements and stuff?

  14. chadrin says:

    This is Chadrin Nseemani, thank you very much probably my examination will be nice!

  15. Chels says:

    This didn’t help meeeeeeeeeeeee!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    Can I get some help with: props, costumes, stage direction etc.#helpneeded

    • Kittykitty says:

      Correct me if I’m wrong, please, but aren’t props, costumes, stage directions etc. elements of production?

  16. Thomas says:

    Great post! Have nice day ! 🙂

  17. BananasInDramaramas says:

    Always come back to this website whenever doing a drama assignment. Thanks to you I got an A+!!!!

  18. bob says:

    great job 🙂 🙂 🙂

  19. Medardo Tembo says:

    wonderful piece of writing I have enjoyed it.

  20. Ohemeng Baah says:

    This has been very helpful to me especially as I’m a self- tutored high school teacher of literature-in-English

  21. Earl Austin says:

    Very interesting and informative forum. As a drama enthusiast, it keeps me abreast of the global elements of drama. Congrats to all of you and keep up the great work.

  22. sally birungi says:

    Yes they are all dramatic elements

  23. Eloise Moroe says:

    The elements of time and place aren’t on this.

  24. Sarah McK says:

    I would love to see this page updated to reflect the new curriculum! Great website. 😀

    • Thanks Sarah. I’ve been meaning to update this page for some time. It was originally written well before the VCAA developed descriptors for the dramatic elements in the VCE Drama course (first there were 11, then 12, now 9 elements). But the stats tell me this page consistently has interest from across the globe. I think I’ll update it to reflect the various elements of drama studied in all of the states and territories of Australia. This will double the current list with additional terms. I’ll get on to it!

  25. hannah says:

    Thanks this helped me with my 2.2 drama devising standard.

  26. TheJdog says:

    that helped a lot

  27. amber says:

    Thanks that really help me pass my assignment

  28. psyborg says:

    But I would love it if I could get more importance of language in Drama.

  29. psyborg says:

    I found this to be useful to me as well.Thanks

  30. Francis Mushiyi says:

    am writing an assignment on features of drama on the following characteristics suspense, plot, conflicts, protagonist, flashback, climax and interlude. your information is really helping me.

  31. drama enthusiast says:

    Would like to commend the writer on the amount of information. It helped a lot for me and cleared up the dramatic elements.

  32. Sybil Masango says:

    Please comment on the following: Performance space; Placement of audience; Symbols; Use and meaning of props; economical use of sets for different meanings; lighting to illustrate moods diff time frame and contrast.

    Thanking you in advance

  33. Princess Sabrina says:

    Why no Allegory heere 🙁 ??

  34. random student says:

    This was very helpfull

  35. princess says:

    Tnks.. Am a student of theatre n perf Art in ABU zaria… This has reali hlp me in studin for my exams… Tnks alot

    • Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria? Happy to see The Drama Teacher being used by students all over the world. I’m glad this article helped you in your studies. – Justin

  36. smartjoseph says:

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  37. Marisse says:

    Hi! I agree so much on this and it helped me alot!

  38. dramalover says:

    very interesting ^^

  39. Thomas,cosmas says:

    Good the text is helpfull

  40. dipankar says:

    really intresting i just so love it

  41. jv says:

    wow it helps me!!!!

  42. Abi says:

    thanks that was really helpful for my drama project

  43. Belleb8 says:

    Thanks so much for this! I’m a Drama student and your site is the most useful one that I have found for my study!!!

  44. Glorious says:

    This information helped me during my exams. More greaz 2 your elbow

  45. ashok aswani says:

    It was need of our circle,we are obliged,

  46. hope says:

    Thanks for this information. You’ve ease my stress. This is just what I need for my assignment.

  47. Tamara Poole says:

    This is a great resources, however for those teachers who come from Australia – especially Queenland we have based the Elements of Drama on the works of a great Australian Drama Educator in one of the books that he co-wrote called “Drama Wise” (a bible for many teachers) and we use the following – Human Context (role, relationship and situation), Focus, Tension, Movement, Language, Time, Mood, Symbol and Place to create Dramatic Meaning. I hope I listed them all. States like New South Wales use elements such as Contrast and Rhythm, but I would include them in the EOD’s I listed above. I hope this gives people a different look into the way that drama is explored in different places.

    • Hi Tamara,

      The above list of dramatic elements is based on those used in senior drama studies in Victoria, as this website originates from Melbourne. Its origins stem from the list originally being published by the Victorian curriculum authority in the early 90s, but to this day without descriptors (to change in 2014). Brad Haseman’s Dramawise is a great book, indeed, and has certainly stood the test of time (24 years on). I have often considered expanding the above list to include different elements of drama studied in various states of Australia and different countries of the world, reflecting additional elements discussed by yourself and others in the comments to this post. One day soon, I may just get to writing up an expanded list with definitions. As a side note, the new Australian Curriculum has yet another list of slightly different elements of drama for us to digest from 2014 onwards. Thanks for your comment.

  48. 4ndo_ks_ says:

    thanks helped me for a project

  49. Robert says:

    Of course conflict and climax are dramatic elements – imagine a play without them.
    I am a high school English teacher in California and needed a tutorial to teach dramatic elements. I am grateful for this website that helped form a class unit.
    Thank you!

  50. person says:

    thanks helped me for a project

  51. Jack Nichollas says:

    Just made my assignment in writing lesson plans a thousand times easier. Thankyou very much.

  52. BV says:

    If you’re naturally talented, what qualifies on a list of dramatic elements doesn’t really matter…

    • SL says:

      Well, that’s not entirely true. Talent may mean that you don’t need these elements to convey a realistic performance to the audience, but these elements are crucial to understanding and interpreting a text. If you rely solely on talent then you won’t be able to expand on your performance skills.

  53. Jetco says:

    Drama is basically any situation or series of events having vivid, emotional, conflicting, or striking interest or results.

  54. Maestero says:

    Surely the conveyance of emotion warrants a place upon the list i.e emotional speaking etc.

  55. Hosea says:

    they are good i like them

  56. jackson half penny says:

    this way SO helpful i would be ****ed with out this

  57. Jarah says:

    Thanks a heap, have a test and these are a great help to make me pass thanks!

  58. Ann Barreto Sousa says:

    Thank you very informative.

  59. bobby jones says:

    hello i love drama

  60. bobby jones says:

    they are good

  61. Bob Marley says:

    thanks man, helped heaps with my exams, homework and project 😀

  62. Lib says:

    Thanks heaps, helps with my exams!

  63. bobet says:

    shaffaf im sorry but climax and conflict are very clearly dramatic elements, i have been studying drama for nearly 6 years and these are used all the time, look anywhere man.

    • Jehosheba says:

      climax and confict was very important..i agree with bobbet.. :)..

      • dramateacher says:

        yes they may be important but they fall under tension…tension of task, tension of relationship, tension of surprise, tension of mystery…they are not elements of drama

      • Tamara Poole says:

        I would actually place Conflict and Climax as a subcategory of Tension – they can apply under the idea of Tension of Relationship or Task for both depending on the Situation, which would be part of the Human Context.

  64. alexa says:

    thanx so much. this helped me a lot for my drama pro.

  65. tebby says:

    this is very helpful as wel as interestin

  66. shaffaf says:

    hmmmm……….climax and conflict are not dramatic elemet, they would fall under human context.

  67. joyti says:

    great websit it’s really helpfull

  68. Anonymous says:

    A great help in condensing great amounts of info. Thanx.

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