Elizabethan Theatre Conventions

Historically, Elizabethan theatre refers to plays performed in England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603). Students of theatre often forget Shakespeare was not the only playwright during this time (somewhat understandable when they hear the term “Shakespearean drama” so regularly). Shakespeare’s contemporaries included the likes of Christopher Marlowe, Ben Jonson, Thomas Dekker, Thomas Kyd, Thomas Heywood and Robert Greene. These and other playwrights also wrote and performed their plays in England during the reign of Elizabeth I. Many of the conventions used in public performances of Elizabethan plays were so recognisable, today Elizabethan theatre is not only referred to as a specific period in theatre history, but also as a theatre style.


Here are some of the more identifiable acting and staging conventions common to Elizabethan theatre:


Hamlet’s “To be or not to be…” is literature’s most famous soliloquy. This popular Elizabethan convention is a literary or dramatic technique in which a single character talks aloud inner thoughts to him or herself, but not within earshot of another character. Typically, a soliloquy is lengthy with a dramatic tone.


The aside existed in Shakespeare’s times, but happily continued into the melodramas of the 19th century many years later. An aside is a convention that usually involves one character addressing the audience “on the side”, offering them valuable information in relation to the plot or characters that only the audience is privy to. The audience now feels empowered, knowing more about the events on stage than most of the characters do.

Boys Performing Female Roles

Acting in Elizabeth’s England was frowned upon my many in society as a profession unsuitable for women, as it was rough and rowdy instead of genteel. As a result, women were not legally permitted to act on the English stage until King Charles II was crowned in the year 1660 (even though women were already acting in various European countries in Commmedia dell’Arte plays for some years). Shakespeare and his contemporaries therefore had no choice but to cast young boys in the roles of women, while the men played all the male roles on stage.


Existing before Elizabethan England and also outliving it, the masque was normally performed indoors at the King or Queen’s court. Spoken in verse, a masque involved beautiful costumes and an intellectual element appropriate for the mostly educated upper class. Masques were allegorical stories about an event or person involving singing, acting and dancing. Characters wore elaborate masks to hide their faces.


Eavesdropping was a dramatic technique that sat neatly between a soliloquy and an aside. Certain characters would strategically overhear others on stage, informing both themselves and the audience of the details, while the characters being overheard had no idea what was happening. This convention opened up opportunities for the playwright in the evolving plot.

Presentational Acting Style

It is generally agreed by scholars Elizabethan acting was largely presentational in style. Plays were more overtly a “performance” with clues the actors were aware of the presence of an audience instead of completely ignoring them as part of their art. Movements and gestures were more stylised and dramatic than one might ordinarily expect in a modern naturalistic or realistic drama, speech patterns were heightened for dramatic effect, and the use of conventions such as the aside, prologue, epilogue and word puns directly connected characters to the audience watching. The aside, the prologue, the soliloquy and the epilogue were all variations on a characters’ direct address to the audience when staged.



Elizabethan plays commonly consisted of dialogue that was poetic, dramatic and heightened beyond that of the vernacular of the day. While often the lower class characters’ speech was somewhat colloquial (prose), upper class characters spoke stylised, rhythmic speech patterns (verse). Shakespeare took great care in composing dialogue that was sometimes blank (unrhymed), but at other times rhyming (couplets) and often using five stressed syllables in a line of dialogue (iambic pentameter).

Play Within A Play

This Elizabethan convention was a playwriting technique used by Shakespeare and others that involved the staging of a play inside the play itself. It was not a flimsy convention, but rather one that was used judiciously and with purpose. One of the most famous examples of this convention occurs in Hamlet, when the title character is convinced his uncle Claudius murdered his father for the throne. So Hamlet organises an out-of-town troupe of performers to attend one evening and perform a play before King Claudius that involves the same plot line as the events in the larger play (murder of a King), but in a different setting … all to let Claudius know Hamlet is on to him!


In terms of stagecraft, Elizabethan dramas used elaborate costumes, yet quite the opposite for scenery. Acting spaces were largely empty (bare stage) with isolated set pieces representing many of the same and minimal use of props (a single tree equalled a forest, a throne for a King’s palace). This explains the use of rich dialogue full of imagery, as there was no set on stage to designate the scene’s location. However, Elizabethan costumes were often rich and colorful, with a character’s status in society being denoted by their costume, alone. There were no stage lights of any kind, with plays strictly performed during daylight hours. A simple balcony at the rear of the stage could be used for scenes involving fantastical beings, Gods or Heaven, while a trap door in the stage floor could also be used to drop characters into Hell or raise characters up from beneath. Entrances and exits were at two doors at the rear (tiring house) and not the side wings, as is the case in modern theatre. An Elizabethan actor exiting side stage may well have landed in the groundings after falling off the edge of the (three-sided) thrust stage that jutted out into the audience!

Modern Variations

So how does a contemporary student of theatre interpret 16th century Elizabethan theatre conventions? I once taught a Year 12 Theatre Studies class where we produced various Shakespearean scenes from some of The Bard’s more popular works. Without changing a single line of dialogue, a group of students performing Act I, Scene I of King Lear modernised it into 70s anti-authoritarian punk. Lear wore leather pants, large leather boots and an armless t-shirt emblazoned with a huge Union Jack. He was Johhny Rotten from the Sex Pistols in an Elizabethan drama. It was easy to dress Lear’s three daughters in a variety of 70s punk outfits. The anti-authoritarian bitchiness of the older sisters Goneril and Regan were expressed through colored hairstyles, heavy make-up, tartan skirts, stockings and high leather boots.

Shakespeare is rarely performed today in Elizabethan costumes. Directors find an angle from which to address the play, often modernising the setting, usually finding a recent parallel that fits so snugly, dialogue remains exactly as Shakespeare wrote it. High school students can have lots of fun with a modern audience in the use of the aside, even breaking the fourth wall completely and running through the house (that would be the theatre term “house”, meaning audience, not your own house!). Experimenting how to perform a soliloquy without allowing your audience to fall asleep is a challenge, too. Contemporary costumes worn by students can be symbolic, home-made, found in op-shops, non-naturalistic etc.

Students today should be familiar with minimal use of props from high school or university theatre classes and plays, so prop acquisition or construction with a modern Elizabethan play is easy. If not in a serious scene, the convention of eavesdropping can be hammed up for comic effect with the audience and even spoken verse does not have to be taken too seriously in a modern setting involving students. The Elizabethan convention of word puns can be hilariously witty if used wisely with contemporary references.

Modernising Elizabethan conventions just takes a bit of brainstorming and before you know it, the creativity will flow! It is simply a case of understanding the nature and purpose of when and why these conventions were used in Elizabethan theatre, and then adapting them for a contemporary audience and/or setting.

50 Responses

  1. Dev Saraswat says:

    Hey, I have to give an exam of MCQ pattern. In that exam Elizabethan theatre will also come, but only in factual form. Can you suggest me some article to gloss over the major terms and facts about Elizabethan Theatre?

  2. liv =) says:

    this is really helpful, we have to do an assignment where we make an activity for the whole class to do… any suggestions?

  3. Charlie says:

    Did the elizabethan actors wear makeup?

  4. The Waterboy says:

    Massive help, would have failed without this 🙂

  5. Catherine Moggridge says:

    Brilliant article – there was a link you put in your response to comments to a related article on this site on the Elizabethan acting style and it seems to have disappeared. Any chance you could repost?

  6. Mia says:

    Is it really appropriate to be describing outfits 16/17 year olds are wearing as slutty. What makes an outfit constitute as slutty? And it isn’t appropriate for a male teacher to use that language on costuming for young girls.

    • Justin Cash says:

      Mia, the characters Regan and Goneril from King Lear were described in the post as slutty and bitchy, not the student’s outfits. Nevertheless the costumes, along with make-up and hair, in the anti-authoritarian recontextualisation of the scene into the 1970s British punk era, were attempting to express these character attitudes. However, as this post was first written 7 years ago, and the event in question 15 years ago, things have definitively changed. So I have happily deleted “slutty” from the post.

  7. emma says:

    How is a soliloquy different from a monologue?

    • Justin Cash says:

      Emma, a monologue is a speech from a play where other characters are present on stage and hear everything that is said and see what is performed. The difference with a soliloquy is that other characters on stage are either out of earshot (even if seen by the audience, the impression is they did not hear the soliloquy) or do not exist at all during the “speech”. A soliloquy is inner thoughts spoken aloud (to one’s self).

  8. Subhash says:

    What is Elizabethan Theatre? Your write up is very helpful to understand it in an interesting way.

  9. Olamiposi says:

    Thanks but please all those listed are they the techniques of Elizabethan drama

  10. Thomas says:

    Hey Justin,

    Are there any physical conventions such as movement or gesture which were used in English renaissance theater?

  11. freddie says:


  12. some year 11 in drama says:

    a girl in my drama class copied this into her presentation. It was great. Thanks

  13. irene herz says:

    For more on this subject, you might want to visit http://elizabethandrama.org/. It has a collection of essays about the English stage.

  14. ammy says:

    Finally got a sensible answer

  15. Anna says:

    Was there any point where the actor would actually speak to the audience directly? For example like now a days one actor might ask the actor, Can you believe this guy? while the other actor is oblivious. Like that

  16. Tony Binyon says:

    The irony! Researching some info for my daughter and seeing a familiar mug on the net!!

  17. Jemma says:

    Hey Justin
    I was wondering what types of characters they had in the Elizabethan era theatre? Like protagonists and antagonists… Stuff like that!
    Thanks Jemma

    • Justin Cash says:

      Jemma, every type of character you can imagine was right there on the Elizabethan stage. One only has to pick up any of Shakespeare’s works to see them. His tragedies were full of strong protagonists like Lear, Hamlet and Macbeth. But Elizabethan antagonists were just as exciting as characters, such as Hamlet’s Uncle Claudius, whom Hamlet suspects murdered his father. Here’s a nice article with images of some of Shakespeare’s best characters.

  18. John Barchilon says:

    Excellent summary! I have a question about whether the Bard ever used a stage hand or actor to walk across the stage with a sign saying, Brutus’s Orchard, or A Street Near the Capitol, or The Field of Battle at Philipi, which are directions from Julius Caesar. There are no dialogue words in those in those scenes to denote the specific setting. So how did he do it?

    • Justin Cash says:

      Interesting question John. Shakespeare normally left clues in the spoken text for the audience to determine setting if it was not clear, however you have said this is not the case in this example.

  19. Samal lubya says:

    Help.(a)what are the Elizabethan Theatrical Convention employed in romeo and juliet? (B) how do these convention help in shaping the overall story of the film,esp. In the scene where mercucio dresses as a female?(c) how important is the role of mercucio in the story?

  20. jamal ballari says:

    Awsome info… On Elizabethan drama.too good

  21. Basanta says:

    It was awesome to get knowledge about Elizabethan era.


    It is very useful.

  23. samim haidar says:

    I am very glad for having this information on Elizabethan theatre.

  24. Justin Cash says:

    Sorry Deborah, unfortunately I am unable to offer any worthwhile information on the comic conventions in Twelfth Night.

  25. Deborah Huntley says:

    Thanks for the valuable information, I am an English & Creative Writing Undergrad student at Murdoch University, this explanation of specific aspects has helped a great deal. hope to see more notes perhaps specific to certain Shakespearean texts. cheers

  26. hannah says:

    thx for this. it really is a great site for students when our teachers dont teach it at all in this much depth.

  27. Liv Bliss says:

    I came a little late to this party, looking for a discussion of the aside in stagecraft and found just what I was looking for here. But I *know* you didn’t mean to write “it was rough and rowdy instead of gentile.” The implications are either funny … or, well, not funny at all.

  28. Sk says:

    Its really…vry useful…thankssss for this..

  29. Ptolemy says:

    Thanks for that, I was having a hard time finding concise notes on Elizabethan theatrical conventions. 🙂

  30. smaxfield3 says:

    Thank you so much for this. It’s a lovely, concise summary of the conventions. Very useful.

  31. Tamara Poole says:

    This is really helpful. It is often so difficult to pin point exactly how to explain students how this style of theatre works and to give them other examples other than Shakespeare.

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