Here are 100 different lazzi that can be used in any Commedia dell’Arte play, scene or classroom exercise. Each lazzo is unique. Some involve specific characters, others require certain categories of characters such as masters, lovers or servants, while some can incorporate any choice of characters.
Lazzi for Commedia dell’Arte
A lazzo (singular) is a comic routine or a rehearsed joke that can be inserted into a scene at various points to entertain the audience. These routines were often physical, involving exaggerated gestures, slapstick comedy, or humorous interplay between characters, although they could also encompass verbal puns and wordplay. The lazzo could be a brief, standalone piece or a more complex, extended routine, and often it was a tried-and-tested piece of comedy that performers could fall back on.
The structure of a lazzo generally includes a set-up, leading to a climax, and ending with a punchline, much like a common joke. It may involve one or several characters, often engaging in a common, everyday task that becomes absurd or exaggerated to comic effect.
Lazzi were integral to the Commedia dell’Arte, as they allowed actors to demonstrate their skills and connect with the audience. As a living form of theatre, Commedia troupes would continually develop, refine, and adapt lazzo routines, responding to the tastes and expectations of different audiences.
1. Lazzo of the Nose (Arlecchino): Arlecchino’s nose becomes stuck in a ring or other object, leading to an exaggerated struggle to release it. Other characters may join in, each offering more absurd solutions, such as using oversized tools or inappropriate objects. The gag could escalate with various attempts to pull, twist, or otherwise manipulate the nose, each more ridiculous than the last.
2. Lazzo of the Fly (Pulcinella): Pulcinella tries to swat a fly, swinging wildly around the stage. He might use oversized swatters, attack the audience, or inadvertently hit other characters on stage. The fly’s “movement” could be narrated by a musician, leading to increasingly complicated and ridiculous actions.
3. Lazzo of the Mirror (Pantalone and Dottore): Pantalone and Dottore discover a “mirror” (another character or characters mimicking them). The reflections exaggerate their movements and flaws, perhaps growing more absurd over time. Other characters might also interact with the “mirror,” leading to additional comic confusion.
4. Lazzo of the Food (Brighella): Brighella cooks a meal, continually tasting and adding ridiculous ingredients, such as shoes, books, or inedible objects. Other characters may react with horror, delight, or oblivion, each tasting and offering their own nonsensical additions.
5. Lazzo of the Music Lesson (Il Capitano and Colombina): Il Capitano attempts to serenade Colombina but plays horribly. Colombina tries to teach him, leading to exaggerated, funny failed attempts with absurdly wrong notes, broken instruments, or using inappropriate objects like a fish as a violin bow.
6. Lazzo of the Invisible Wall (Arlecchino): Arlecchino acts as if encountering an invisible wall, feeling around it, climbing over it, even interacting with imaginary objects on it. Other characters might pass through it, adding to Arlecchino’s confusion and despair.
7. Lazzo of the Fainting (Isabella): Isabella faints repeatedly at shocking news. Different characters catch her with varying degrees of grace or clumsiness. Props like fainting couches or fans might be used, each time escalating the drama of the faint.
8. Lazzo of the Sleepwalking (Pantalone): Pantalone sleepwalks through a scene, engaging with objects and characters in absurd and inappropriate ways. He might eat a hat, dance with a broom, or engage in a deep conversation with a statue.
9. Lazzo of the Misunderstood Message (Servant Characters): A servant character repeatedly misunderstands a message, delivering it wrong to various characters. The misunderstandings lead to a series of comic consequences, growing more absurd with each iteration.
10. Lazzo of the Duel (Il Capitano and Scaramouche): Il Capitano challenges Scaramouche to a duel but continually finds ways to delay or avoid it, using humorous excuses, losing his sword, or even pretending to die. Other characters might join in, either encouraging the duel or helping Il Capitano avoid it.
11. Lazzo of the Stolen Purse (Arlecchino and Pantalone): Arlecchino steals Pantalone’s purse and replaces it with increasingly ridiculous objects like a live chicken or a wet sponge. Pantalone’s reactions escalate with each discovery, and other characters might interact with the objects in unexpected ways.
12. Lazzo of the Broken Chair (Brighella): Brighella offers a broken chair to various guests, leading to repeated falls and frustrations. Each time, Brighella might feign innocence, attempt a ridiculous “repair,” or even blame the victim, all with increasing comic absurdity.
13. Lazzo of the Doctor’s Examination (Dottore): Dottore conducts a medical examination using bizarre instruments like a giant hammer or a feather. He might apply nonsensical procedures like listening to a foot with a stethoscope or taking the pulse of a hat, leading to absurd diagnoses that change with each examination.
14. Lazzo of the Flirtation (Colombina and Arlecchino): Colombina and Arlecchino engage in exaggerated flirtation, misunderstanding each other’s intentions and using increasingly elaborate and inappropriate gestures, gifts, or compliments, leading to comic confusion and frustration.
15. Lazzo of the Fake Death (Pulcinella): Pulcinella pretends to die, then miraculously comes back to life. This process could repeat multiple times, with increasingly elaborate “deaths” and “resurrections,” involving other characters in mourning, rejoicing, or even trying to bury him.
16. Lazzo of the Love Letter (Isabella and Lovers): Isabella receives a love letter intended for someone else, leading to mistaken identities and absurd romantic entanglements. The letter might be read aloud, misread, or even rewritten by various characters, each adding to the comic confusion.
17. Lazzo of the Eavesdropping (Servant Characters): Characters eavesdrop on each other, leading to a series of misheard and misunderstood information, escalating into farcical confusion. The eavesdropping might be done with elaborate devices like giant ears or through increasingly absurd locations like chimneys or under carpets.
18. Lazzo of the Uncooperative Animal (Arlecchino): Arlecchino struggles with an “uncooperative” animal (portrayed by another actor), attempting to lead it, ride it, or catch it. The animal might develop a personality of its own, interacting with other characters or objects in unexpected and humorous ways.
19. Lazzo of the Fake Language (Dottore): Dottore speaks in an absurd, fake language, confusing others. This could escalate with other characters attempting to speak the same language, or with translations that lead to misunderstandings and comic frustrations.
20. Lazzo of the Echo (Various Characters): Characters hear an echo (another actor off-stage) that repeats, distorts, and eventually makes fun of what they say. The echo might interact with the characters, answer questions wrongly, or even argue with them, leading to increasing anger and comic confrontations.
21. Lazzo of the Tangled Cloak (Pantalone and Arlecchino): Pantalone’s cloak becomes tangled in a tree or prop, and Arlecchino’s efforts to untangle it only make things worse. They might cut it, tie it in knots, or even set it on fire, each attempt leading to further comedic chaos.
22. Lazzo of the Lost Key (Brighella): Brighella loses a key and searches for it in increasingly absurd places, like inside a chicken or a character’s mouth. Other characters might find and hide it again, leading to a farcical cycle of discovery and loss.
23. Lazzo of the Disguise (Various Characters): Characters disguise themselves as others, using exaggerated and ill-fitting costumes. The disguises fool no one but are taken seriously by the characters, leading to a series of misunderstandings and identity crises.
24. Lazzo of the Endless Letter (Colombina): Colombina reads a never-ending love letter, unrolling it across the stage and involving others to hold it. The content might become increasingly absurd, sentimental, or inappropriate, leading to various reactions from the listeners.
25. Lazzo of the Sneeze (Pulcinella): Pulcinella’s sneeze causes a chain reaction on stage, knocking over props, characters, or even the scenery. Each sneeze escalates in force and consequence, leading to an exaggerated climax.
26. Lazzo of the Dentist (Dottore and Arlecchino): Dottore plays a dentist and attempts to pull Arlecchino’s tooth, using bizarre tools like pliers or a hammer. The “extraction” becomes a wild physical struggle with unexpected results, like pulling out the wrong tooth or an object like a cork.
27. Lazzo of the Love Potion (Isabella and Lovers): Isabella concocts a love potion that mistakenly affects the wrong characters, leading to unexpected romantic entanglements, infatuations with objects, or even self-love, each more absurd than the last.
28. Lazzo of the Ghost (Various Characters): Characters pretend to see a ghost, or one pretends to be a ghost, frightening others. The “ghost” might give ridiculous advice, make absurd demands, or even engage in a dance, leading to comic interactions.
29. Lazzo of the Hiccups (Brighella): Brighella develops uncontrollable hiccups, disrupting conversations, ruining romantic moments, or even causing physical mishaps. Others try to “cure” him with increasingly ridiculous methods, each failing in a humorous way.
30. Lazzo of the Changing Portrait (Pantalone): A portrait on stage changes expressions or even “talks,” reacting to Pantalone’s actions or words. The portrait might be operated by another character, leading to a comedic dialogue or series of confrontations.
31. Lazzo of the Shoe (Il Capitano): Il Capitano’s shoe becomes the focus of a scene, either being too tight, too smelly, or having a mind of its own. Attempts to remove or deal with the shoe lead to physical comedy, including flying objects, unintended kicks, or an exaggerated battle with the footwear.
32. Lazzo of the Baby (Colombina and Arlecchino): A “baby” (a prop or doll) requires care but behaves unexpectedly, crying at odd times, moving on its own, or even “talking.” Colombina and Arlecchino’s efforts to care for it lead to a series of comic mishaps.
33. Lazzo of the Haircut (Pulcinella and Brighella): Pulcinella attempts to give Brighella a haircut, using inappropriate tools like a sword or shears. The haircut goes wildly wrong, with uneven results, lost hair, or even accidental trimming of clothes or other body parts.
34. Lazzo of the Misplaced Glasses (Dottore): Dottore loses his glasses and sees everything incorrectly, mistaking characters for objects, or vice versa. The confusion escalates as he interacts with the world through his blurred vision, leading to comic misunderstandings.
35. Lazzo of the Courtship Dance (Various Lovers): Lovers engage in an exaggerated courtship dance, with each step more absurd and elaborate than the last. Other characters might join in, misunderstand the dance, or even attempt to “improve” it, leading to a chaotic and humorous spectacle.
36. Lazzo of the Runaway Horse (Il Capitano): Il Capitano’s “horse” (another actor or a prop) behaves wildly, refusing commands, going in wrong directions, or even interacting with the audience. Attempts to control it lead to a farcical chase or battle.
37. Lazzo of the Fishing (Arlecchino and Pantalone): Characters fish on stage, catching increasingly ridiculous objects like hats, boots, or even other characters. The fishing might become a physical struggle, a competition, or an existential debate, each with comic potential.
38. Lazzo of the Telescope (Various Characters): A character uses a telescope (or a makeshift one) and sees absurd or impossible sights, like a close-up bird or a distant land on the other side of the stage. Others might look and see different things, leading to humorous disagreements and misunderstandings.
39. Lazzo of the Trapdoor (Various Characters): Characters fall into or emerge from a trapdoor at unexpected times, turning it into a conduit for surprise entrances and exits. The trapdoor might be used for escape, pursuit, or even as a portal to absurd locations, each with comic possibilities.
40. Lazzo of the Self-Playing Instrument (Various Characters): A musical instrument plays itself or responds to commands, leading to a humorous “conversation” with a character or even a full musical number. Others might interact with it, dance to it, or even argue with it, each adding layers of comedy.
41. Lazzo of the Oversized Utensils (Pulcinella): Pulcinella attempts to eat but discovers all the utensils are comically oversized. He must navigate the challenges of using them, leading to a messy and slapstick dining experience.
42. Lazzo of the Dueling Shadows (Il Capitano and Scaramouche): Characters duel, but only their shadows are seen by the audience. The shadows might act independently, refuse to fight, or even switch sides, creating a visual gag.
43. Lazzo of the Floating Umbrella (Pantalone): Pantalone’s umbrella begins to float, carrying him or other characters off the ground. The umbrella might respond to commands, emotions, or even the weather, leading to a whimsical flight, chase, or even a “battle” with other floating objects.
44. Lazzo of the Never-Ending Handshake (Il Capitano and Brighella): Characters engage in a handshake that becomes a prolonged physical struggle, dance, or even a philosophical debate. The handshake might have rules, traditions, or magical properties, each with comic possibilities.
45. Lazzo of the Disappearing Ink (Dottore): Dottore uses ink that disappears as he writes, leading to frustration, disbelief, or even a humorous chase as he tries to “catch” the words. Other characters might see the invisible ink, read it aloud, or even be affected by it, each with comic and magical possibilities.
46. Lazzo of the Transforming Portraits (Various Characters): Portraits on the stage change expressions, swap faces, or even come to life, reacting to the scene or interacting with characters. They might offer advice, criticism, or even join the action, each adding layers of visual comedy.
47. Lazzo of the Mirror Maze (Various Characters): Characters find themselves in a maze of mirrors, leading to reflections that act independently, multiply, or even switch places with them. The mirrors might create illusions, reveal truths, or simply add to the confusion.
48. Lazzo of the Leaping Fish (Various Characters): A fish or series of fish leap across the stage, either as puppets, props, or imaginary creatures. Characters might try to catch them, communicate with them, or be guided by them, leading to a whimsical aquatic adventure.
49. Lazzo of the Hungry Furniture (Various Characters): Furniture “eats” objects or even characters, refusing to release them or demanding more. Characters must feed, fight, or negotiate with the furniture, leading to physical comedy, surprise reactions, and theatricality.
50. Lazzo of the Mismatched Duels (Various Characters): Characters engage in duels using mismatched weapons, such as a sword versus a feather or a shield versus a loaf of bread. The duels might be serious, absurd, or even romantic, each with a unique comic twist.
51. Lazzo of the Battle of Flowers (Various Lovers): Lovers engage in a battle using flowers, either as weapons, messages, or challenges. The battle might escalate into a dance, a physical struggle, or even a floral “war,” each with whimsical and romantic potential.
52. Lazzo of the Dance of the Hats (Various Characters): Characters engage in a dance or competition using hats, either as partners, weapons, or even judges. The hats might have personalities, magical properties, or simply add to the rhythm and flair of the scene, creating a lively and stylish spectacle.
53. Lazzo of the Sighing Wind (Various Characters): The wind on stage sighs, either responding to emotions, narrating the action, or even affecting the characters. The sighing might be controlled, random, or even part of a larger natural “character,” leading to aural comedy, atmospheric effects, and thematic resonance.
54. Lazzo of the Painted Footsteps (Arlecchino): Arlecchino paints footsteps that act as a guide, obstacle, or even a dance partner. Characters might follow, avoid, or even be controlled by the footsteps, creating a visual game, a rhythmic dance, or even a journey through space and time.
55. Lazzo of the Talking Money (Pantalone): Pantalone’s money begins to talk, either criticizing, advising, or even bargaining with him. Others might hear the money, steal it, or even engage in a financial debate, leading to a humorous exploration of wealth and value.
56. Lazzo of the Whispering Walls (Dottore): The walls or scenery begin to whisper, either offering advice, gossip, or even singing. Characters might interact with the whispers, try to stop them, or even join them, creating aural comedy and atmospheric effects.
57. Lazzo of the Animated Clothes (Pulcinella): Pulcinella’s clothes come to life, either helping, hindering, or even controlling him. The clothes might have personalities, agendas, or simply respond to the scene, leading to visual comedy and unexpected interactions.
58. Lazzo of the Waterfall of Letters (Colombina): A cascade of letters pours from a mailbox, book, or even the sky, leading to a frantic reading, sorting, or even physical struggle with the letters. They might tell a story, create a scene, or simply become a visual spectacle.
59. Lazzo of the Human Clock (Pantalone): Pantalone becomes a human clock, with his limbs and body marking the time. Other characters might use him, adjust him, or even be controlled by him, creating a series of comedic scenarios tied to time and rhythm.
60. Lazzo of the Multiplying Props (Arlecchino): A single prop begins to multiply whenever it’s put down, leading to an escalating situation where characters try to manage, use, or even escape the growing number of identical objects.
61. Lazzo of the Chattering Teeth (Brighella): Brighella’s teeth chatter uncontrollably, either from fear or cold, leading to a humorous sequence where he tries to stop them, communicate, or even use them musically.
62. Lazzo of the Fainting Audience (Il Capitano): Il Capitano’s boasts are so grandiose that they cause members of the “audience” (other characters or planted actors) to faint. This leads to over-the-top rescues, revival attempts, or even a “competition” to cause the most dramatic fainting.
63. Lazzo of the Echoing Footsteps (Pulcinella): Footsteps echo or multiply, creating an auditory gag where characters try to catch, avoid, or even dance with the footsteps. The echoing might have a pattern, respond to commands, or even form a “character,” leading to aural and visual comedy.
64. Lazzo of the Sleeping Orchestra (Various Characters): The orchestra or musical accompaniment falls asleep or slows down, affecting the pace, emotion, or even the reality of the scene. Characters might try to wake the music, dance to it, or even be lulled by it, leading to a whimsical musical exploration.
65. Lazzo of the Reversed Clothing (Arlecchino and Brighella): Characters accidentally wear clothing backward or inside out, leading to confusion, comic struggles to “fix” it, or even a fashionable trend. The reversed clothing might affect social status, relationships, or even become part of a disguise.
66. Lazzo of the Dancing Shadow (Various Characters): A character’s shadow begins to dance on its own, leading to a humorous confrontation, a shadow duet, or even a full shadow ensemble number. The shadow dance might be romantic, combative, or purely absurd.
67. Lazzo of the Backwards Speech (Dottore): Dottore begins to speak backward, either from a spell or mistake. Others must interpret his words, mimic the speech pattern, or find a way to “cure” him, each leading to verbal and physical comedy.
68. Lazzo of the Love Potion (Various Lovers): Characters accidentally consume a love potion, leading to exaggerated affections, mistaken targets, or even a mass romance. The potion’s effects might be reversed, switched, or enhanced, each with comic possibilities.
69. Lazzo of the Dueling Cooks (Pulcinella and Brighella): Characters engage in a cooking duel, using exaggerated methods, bizarre ingredients, or even magical recipes. The duel might escalate into a physical struggle, a tasting competition, or a culinary “dance.”
70. Lazzo of the Climbing Plant (Various Characters): A plant on stage grows rapidly, entangling characters, becoming a prop, or even “communicating” through movement. The plant might be used for escape, romance, or philosophical exploration, each with humorous possibilities.
71. Lazzo of the Melodramatic Death (Il Capitano): Il Capitano performs an exaggerated and prolonged death scene, using melodramatic gestures, speeches, or even musical accompaniment. He might “die” multiple times, be revived, or even comment on his performance, each adding layers of comedy.
72. Lazzo of the Linguistic Confusion (Dottore and Foreign Character): Characters engage in conversation but misunderstand each other’s languages or dialects. They might use exaggerated gestures, incorrect translations, or even create a “new” language, leading to verbal and physical comedy.
73. Lazzo of the Runaway Servant (Arlecchino and Pantalone): Arlecchino continually tries to escape Pantalone’s service, leading to a farcical chase with trapdoors, disguises, or even enlistment of the audience. The escape attempts might become a recurring gag throughout the performance.
74. Lazzo of the Ever-Growing Nose (Dottore): Dottore’s nose grows whenever he exaggerates or lies. Others might interact with the nose, try to “cure” it, or even use it as a prop, leading to visual comedy and a satirical commentary on deceit.
75. Lazzo of the Contagious Laughter (Various Characters): A character’s laughter becomes contagious, spreading to others and escalating into a rhythmic pattern or musical number. The laughter might be triggered by different stimuli, each more absurd than the last.
76. Lazzo of the Exploding Props (Brighella): Props on stage spontaneously explode into confetti, smoke, or smaller objects. The explosions might be triggered by actions, words, or emotions, leading to surprise reactions and staged chaos.
77. Lazzo of the Reflecting Pool (Various Characters): A “pool” on stage reflects characters, but the reflections might act independently, mimic others, or even come to life, leading to physical comedy, surprise encounters, or philosophical explorations.
78. Lazzo of the Singing Sword (Various Characters): A sword or weapon “sings” or makes musical sounds, leading to a comedic “duet” or “orchestra” with the characters. The sword might respond to emotions, actions, or even conduct the scene, creating a musical and visual spectacle.
79. Lazzo of the Time-Traveling Door (Various Characters): A door or archway becomes a portal to different times or places. Characters might find themselves in historical scenes, future landscapes, or absurd locations, with each transition creating new comic situations.
80. Lazzo of the Floating Hat (Il Capitano): Il Capitano’s hat begins to float above his head. It moves and dodges his attempts to catch it, leading to a comedic chase or even an aerial dance with the elusive hat.
81. Lazzo of the Weeping Willows (Various Lovers): Trees on stage weep, either from romance, tragedy, or even laughter. Characters might interact with the trees, use the “tears,” or even become part of the weeping, creating visual comedy, poetic imagery, and environmental themes.
82. Lazzo of the Confused Messenger (Scaramouche): Scaramouche must deliver messages between characters but mixes them up, misunderstands them, or even alters them, leading to a series of miscommunications, mistaken identities, and farcical outcomes.
83. Lazzo of the Stubborn Wig (Il Capitano): Il Capitano’s wig refuses to stay in place, leading to an ongoing battle to wear it properly. It might move on its own, respond to commands, or even “communicate” with other wigs, creating a series of visual gags.
84. Lazzo of the Animated Wig (Various Characters): A character’s wig comes to life, either dancing, arguing, or even fleeing. The wig might have its desires, a history, or even a relationship with other characters, leading to visual surprises, character comedy, and unexpected storytelling.
85. Lazzo of the Jealous Puppet (Pulcinella): Pulcinella interacts with a puppet that becomes jealous of other characters. The puppet might attack, mimic, or even romance other characters, leading to a humorous conflict with its puppeteer.
86. Lazzo of the Never-Ending Thread (Colombina): Colombina pulls a thread from her costume or a prop, leading to an endless string of objects, letters, or even other characters. The thread might tell a story, create a scene, or simply become a physical obstacle.
87. Lazzo of the Accidental Artist (Brighella and Arlecchino): Characters create accidental art, such as spilling paint to form a portrait or sculpting clay through a clumsy struggle. The art might be praised or criticized by others, leading to further comic misunderstandings.
88. Lazzo of the Balancing Act (Arlecchino): Arlecchino attempts an exaggerated balancing act with objects, people, or even himself. The balancing might become a physical struggle, a competition, or even a form of “magic,” each with slapstick potential.
89. Lazzo of the Dueling Quills (Dottore and Scaramouche): Characters engage in a duel using quill pens, either writing insults, drawing weapons, or even “fencing” with the quills. The duel might escalate into a literary battle, a physical comedy, or even a poetic romance, each with a unique blend of wit and action.
90. Lazzo of the Dancing Shoes (Colombina): Colombina’s shoes make her dance uncontrollably. The dance might affect others, lead her into unexpected places, or even become a magical ritual, each scenario unfolding with physical comedy.
91. Lazzo of the Seductive Statue (Various Lovers): A statue or mannequin becomes the object of affection for a character, leading to a one-sided romance with comic physicality. Others might manipulate the statue, play along, or become jealous, each adding layers of comedy.
92. Lazzo of the Moving Furniture (Dottore): Furniture or scenery moves on its own, leading Dottore on a chase or forcing him to adapt to a shifting environment. The movements might be random or seem to have intent, leading to comic interactions or even a “dance” with the surroundings.
93. Lazzo of the Inflating Costume (Pantalone): Pantalone’s costume inflates at inappropriate times, making him appear pregnant, obese, or even monstrous. Attempts to deflate it might lead to physical comedy, surprising transformations, or even an “explosion” of props or confetti.
94. Lazzo of the Repeated Gesture (Various Characters): A character’s physical gesture or vocal tic is mimicked by others, building into a chain reaction or rhythmic pattern. It might escalate into a dance, a battle, or a philosophical debate, each with comic potential.
95. Lazzo of the Talking Animal (Pulcinella): Pulcinella communicates with a “talking” animal (another actor or a puppet). The animal might give sage advice, silly commentary, or simply mimic Pulcinella, leading to a humorous dialogue or series of confrontations.
96. Lazzo of the Wandering Spotlight (Il Capitano): A spotlight follows or escapes a character, leading to a game of chasing light or being chased by it. It might respond to commands, emotions, or even musical cues, creating visual comedy.
97. Lazzo of the Rolling Barrel (Various Characters): A barrel or similar object rolls uncontrollably across the stage, carrying characters, knocking them over, or becoming an obstacle. Its movements might be choreographed to music or sound effects for additional comic effect.
98. Lazzo of the Sleepwalking (Colombina): Colombina sleepwalks, interacting with the scene as if in a dream. Other characters might attempt to direct her, manipulate her actions, or protect her from mishaps, each leading to comedic situations.
99. Lazzo of the Flying Objects (Brighella and Pantalone): Objects spontaneously fly across the stage or even into the audience. Characters try to catch or avoid them, leading to physical comedy, surprise reactions, and staged chaos.
100. Lazzo of the Misguided Courtship (Various Lovers): Characters court the wrong partners due to misunderstanding or disguise. They use exaggerated romantic gestures, each more outlandish and inappropriate for the receiver.